Types of Electric Cars and Working Principles

Spread the love

Types of Electric Cars and Working Principles are constantly changing and being developed, giving customers and future consumers options.

Today, the names BEV, HEV, PHEV, and FCEV are becoming more widely known. How is an electric vehicle operated? The type of electric vehicle determines how it operates. The sorts and operating theories of the electric cars or vehicles currently on the market in the world and in Indonesia will be briefly covered in this article.

 Types of Electric Cars and Working Principles

An electric automobile is a vehicle that uses energy from rechargeable batteries to be entirely or partially powered by electric motors. In the 1880s, the first usable electric cars were built.

In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, electric cars were common.The use of electric vehicles has decreased as a result of innovation and increased development in internal combustion engines (ICE) and mass production of less expensive gasoline automobiles.

At current time, electric automobiles are becoming more and more common because to the advancements made in energy storage technology, particularly battery technology. So, how does an actual electric automobile operate?

How Does An Electric Car Work? – General

  • When the car’s pedal is depressed, then:
  • A controller uses electrical energy from batteries and inverters and controls it.
  • The inverter then delivers a specific amount of electrical energy to the motor when the controller is set (according to the depth of pressure on the pedal)
  • Electrical energy is transformed into mechanical energy by an electric motor (rotation)motor is turning. Rotor turns the transmission, which causes the wheels to turn and move the vehicle.

Note: The working principle above is for battery electric vehicle (BEV) type.

Types of Electric Cars and Working Principles.

There are 4 (four) types of electric cars, with the following outline:

  1. Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV)
  2. Hybrid

  Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV)

Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV)

  • Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV)

In brief, Types of Electric Cars and Working Principles can be seen in the following figure:

You can read more detailed explanation below.

Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV)

A battery and an electric drive train power a complete battery electric vehicle (BEV), also known as an all-electric vehicle (AEV). These particular electric vehicles lack an ICE. A sizable battery pack that can hold electricity is charged by connecting to the power grid. The battery pack then fuels one or more electric motors that power the electric vehicle.

Architecture and Main Components of BEV

Electric motor



Control Module

Drive train

Working Principles of BEV

For the electric motor, power is transferred from the DC battery to AC.The controller receives a signal from the accelerator pedal and modifies the frequency of the AC power from the inverter to the motor to change the speed of the vehicle.

Through a cog, the motor is connected to and rotates the wheels.The motor transforms into an alternator and generates power when the brakes are applied or the electric vehicle is slowing down, sending that power back to the battery.

Examples of BEV

Volkswagen e-Golf, Tesla Model 3, BMW i3, Chevy Bolt, Chevy Spark, Nissan LEAF, Ford Focus Electric, Hyundai Ioniq, Karma Revera, Kia Soul, Mitsubishi i-MiEV, Tesla X, Toyota Rav4

Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV)

These hybrid vehicles are frequently referred to as parallel hybrids or normal hybrids. HEVs have an ICE in addition to an electric motor. In these sorts of electric vehicles, the motor is powered by batteries instead of the internal combustion engine, which runs on fuel (gasoline and other forms of fuel).

The transmission, which turns the wheels, is turned by both the gasoline engine and the electric motor at the same time.HEVs differ from BEVs and PHEVs in that their batteries can only be charged by an internal combustion engine, the rotation of the wheels, or a combination of the two. The battery cannot be recharged from outside the system, such as from the electrical grid, because there is no charging port..

Architecture and Main Components of HEV

Components of HEV


Electric motor

Battery pack with controller & inverter

Fuel tank

Control module

Working Principles of HEV

Has a fuel tank that supplies gas to the engine like a regular car

It also has a set of batteries that run an electric motor

Both the engine and electric motor can turn the transmission at the same time

Examples of  HEV

Honda Civic Hybrid, Toyota Prius Hybrid, Honda Civic Hybrid, Toyota Camry Hybrid.

Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV)

A PHEV is a hybrid vehicle that has both an ICE and a motor, and is frequently referred to as a series hybrid. This class of electric vehicles has a range of fuel options.

This category of electric vehicles is propelled by a rechargeable battery pack and either a conventional fuel (like gasoline) or an alternative fuel (like biodiesel). Electricity can be used to recharge the battery by plugging it into an outlet or an electric vehicle charging station (EVCS).

PHEV typically can run in at least two modes:

All-electric Mode, in which the motor and battery provide all the car’s energy

Hybrid Mode, in which both electricity and gasoline are employed.

Some PHEVs can travel more than 70 miles on electricity alone.

Architecture and Main Components of PHEV

Components of PHEV

Electric motor




Fuel tank

Control module

Battery Charger (if onboard model)

Working Principles of PHEV

PHEVs normally start in electric-only mode and continue to run on energy until their battery pack runs out. When they reach highway cruising speed, which is typically above 60 or 70 miles per hour, some models switch to hybrid mode.

When the battery runs out, the engine kicks in and the car starts running like a regular, non-plug-in hybrid. An internal combustion engine or regenerative braking can charge PHEV batteries in addition to hooking into an external electric power source.

The electric motor functions as a generator during braking, utilising the energy to recharge the battery. Smaller engines can be employed since the electric motor augments the engine’s power, improving fuel efficiency without sacrificing performance.

Examples of PHEV

Porsche Cayenne S E-Hybrid , Chevy Volt, Chrysler Pacifica, Ford C-Max Energi, Ford Fusion Energi, Mercedes C350e, Mercedes S550e, Mercedes GLE550e, Mini Cooper SE Countryman, Audi A3 E-Tron, BMW 330e, BMW i8, BMW X5 xdrive40e, Fiat 500e, Hyundai Sonata, Kia Optima, Porsche Panamera S E-hybrid, Volvo XC90 T8.

Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV)

Fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs), often referred to as zero emission vehicles (ZEVs) or fuel cell vehicles (FCVs), are a subset of electric cars that use “fuel cell technology” to produce the electricity needed to power them. The chemical energy of the gasoline is directly turned into electric energy in this sort of vehicle.

Architecture and Main Components of FCEV

Components of FCEV

Electric motor

Fuel-cell stack

Hydrogen storage tank

Battery with converter and controller

Working Principles of FCEV

A “fuel cell” electric automobile operates on a distinct set of principles than a “plug-in” electric vehicle. This category of electric vehicles is so-called because the FCEV produces the electricity needed to power it on its own.

Examples of FCEV

Toyota Mirai, Hyundai Tucson FCEV, Riversimple Rasa, Honda Clarity Fuel Cell, Hyundai Nexo.

Below are some of the key features of an electric vehicle.

• Zero-emission: Thanks to electrical energy, all-electric vehicles emit no emissions, in contrast to their traditional counterparts. Because they don’t release harmful chemicals into the atmosphere, electric vehicles contribute to lowering the level of air pollution, which is now on the rise.

• Low maintenance costs: Buying an EV requires a larger initial expenditure than buying a regular automobile. However, in the long run, an electric vehicle’s maintenance costs are far less expensive because they have fewer mechanical parts. Electrical energy, which is less expensive than traditional fuel, also contributes to the reduced running costs of an electric vehicle.

• Quiet operation: Since internal combustion (IC) engines are not used in electric vehicles, there are extremely few mechanical parts. As a result, they are silent when you drive, which reduces noise pollution, particularly in big cities.

• An enjoyable driving experience. Again, there are fewer moving components due to the lack of an IC engine. So, when comparing an electric automobile to a gasoline-powered car, you experience no vibrations inside the cabin, and the overall driving experience is better.

• Simple to drive: Cars driven by batteries don’t need a clutch or manual gear shifting, making them simple to drive. Simply press the accelerator and start driving.

Spread the love

Leave a Comment

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.